Anatomy is the science of the structure of the body. When used without qualification, the term is applied usually to human anatomy. The word is derived indirectly from the Greek anatome, a term built from ana, meaning “up,” and tome, meaning “a cutting” (compare the words tome, microtome, and epitome). From an etymological point of view, the term” dissection” (dis-, meaning” asunder, ” and secare, meaning “to cut”) is the Latin equivalent of the Greek anatome.
Anatomy, wrote Vesalius in the preface to his De Fabrica (1543), “should rightly be regarded as the firm foundation of the whole art of medicine and its essential preliminary.” Moreover, the study of anatomy introduces the student to the greater part of medical terminology.
Anatomy “is to physiology as geography is to history” (Femel); that is, it provides the setting for the events. Although the primary concern of anatomy is with structure, structure and function should be considered together. Moreover, by means of surface and radiological anatomy, emphasis should be placed on the anatomy of the living body. As Whitnall expressed it, “I cannot put before you too strongly the value and interest of this rather neglected [surface] aspect of anatomy. Many a student first realizes its importance only when brought to the bedside or the operating table of his patient, when the first thing he is faced with is the last and least he has considered.” The classical methods of physical examination of the body and the use of some of the various “-scopes,” e.g., the stethoscope and the ophthalmoscope, should be included. Radiological studies facilitate achievement of “an understanding of the fluid character of anatomy and physiology of the living” (A.E. Barclay), and the importance of variation should be kept in mind.
In relation to the size of the parts studied, anatomy is usually divided into (1) macroscopic or gross anatomy, and (2) microscopic anatomy or histology (now used synonymously). In addition, embryology is the study of the embryo and the fetus, that is, the study of prenatal development, whereas the study of congenital malformations is known as teratology.
In general, works dealing with human anatomy are arranged either (1) systemically, that is, according to the various systems of the body (skeletal, muscular, digestive, etc.) or (2) regionally, that is, according to the natural, main subdivisions of the body (head and neck, upper limb, thorax, etc.). In this book, after the general features of certain systems have been discussed in introductory chapters, the remainder of the work will general follow a regional approach. The regional plan has been adopted chiefly because the vast majority of laboratory courses in human anatomy are based on regional dissection.
The primary goal of anatomy is to widen the students knowledge about the structure and functioning of the human body.
- Develop a vocabulary of appropriate terminology to effectively communicate information related to anatomy and physiology.
- Recognize the anatomical structures and explain the physiological functions of body systems.
- Use anatomical knowledge to predict physiological consequences, and use knowledge of function to predict the features of anatomical structures.
- Recognize and explain the interrelationships within and between anatomical and physiological systems of the human body.
- Synthesize ideas to make a connection between knowledge of anatomy and physiology and real-world situations, including healthy lifestyle decisions and homeostatic imbalances.
- Demonstrate laboratory procedures used to examine anatomical structures and evaluate physiological functions of each organ system.
- Interpret graphs of anatomical and physiological data.
- One year
- The minimum age for admission shall be 17 years on 31st December of the year in which admission is sought.
- Minimum education:
- 10+2 class passed with Science (PCB) & English Core/English Elective with aggregate of 45% marks from recognized board under AISSCE/CBSE/ICSE/SSCE/HSCE or other equivalent Board.
- Student shall be medically fit.
- Students appearing in 10+2 examination in Science conducted by National Institute of Open School with 45% marks.
- Student shall be admitted once in a year.
Registered Nurses (RNs) may work in more than 50 different areas of practice from public health to palliative care.
Gerontological nursing isn’t just about end-of-life activities — it’s about maximizing functional health and psychological well being for people over 65. Nursing who specialize in gerontology find themselves working in diverse settings, and caring for older adults in various stages of life.
Home Health Nursing
The last 20 years, we’ve witnessed nursing care shift to the community from hospitals. Discover all the interventions home health care nurses now deliver, allowing Canadians to successful manage increasingly complex conditions in the comfort of their homes.
Occupational Health Nursing
Occupational Health Nurses are knowledgeable, and highly skilled, with specialized education in many related workplace health and environmental safety fields. Learn more about how the OHN may be the employee’s first contact with primary health care.
palliative care nursing is not only end of life care. In fact, as RN, CNS, APN or NP, nurses spend time focusing on a holistic approach to care delivery, attending to the physical, spiritual, psycho-social and practical issues that may arise during an illness period
Public Health Nursing
Public health nursing in Ontario is rooted in the traditions of Florence Nightingale, Jeanne Mance, and women in religious orders such as the Grey Nuns. Early North American PHNs understood the importance of social, economic, environmental, and political determinants of health, and believed that social activism and collaboration with community organizations and governments was a fundamental aspect of public health nursing practice
Nurse practitioners (NP) are registered nurses with advanced university education who provide personalized, quality health care to patients. NPs offer health-care services to individuals, families and communities. They practise in a variety of settings, including hospitals and community based clinics in Ontario cities and towns.
The interdisciplinary curriculum is based on both clinical and public health model for practice. The major focus is to provide quality care to patients and use of new technologies. Fellows are prepared to participate in multidisciplinary approach in planning, implementing, managing and evaluating programme. It is assumed that there will be approximately 60 teaching hours in one year period of fellowship course.
· Introduction to Anatomical Terms and Organization ofthe Human Body
· Skeletal System
· Muscular System
· Nervous system
· Sensory organs
· Circulatory and Lymphatic System:
· Respiratory System
· Digestive System
· Excretory System (Urinary):
· Endocrine System
· Reproductive System including Breast
- Gray,s Anatomy 41 Edition Writer Susan Standriy 03 Nos Printed by Churchill, Living stone.
- Gray,s Anatomy for Student 2 nd Edition Author Richard 03 Nos. L.Drak, A. Wayne Vogl, printed by Churchill, Living stone
- Last,s Anatomy. 11 Edition Regional and applied printed by Churchill, living stone. 03 Nos
- Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 06 th Edition, Keith L. Moore, Arthur F. Dally, printed by Wolters Kluwer 03 Nos (Health).
- Clinical Anatomy. By regions 8 th Edition 03 Nos Richards S. Snell. Printed by Walters Kluwer.
- Clinical Anatomy 11 th Editions, 03 Nos Writer Harold Ellis, printed by Blach Well.
- Anatomy and Physiology. For Nurses, 16 th Edition, 100 Nos Evelyn Pearce
Following guidelines should be followed in order to have a common standardized syllabus format for the whole university.
- Chapters should be as per respective council i.e INC
- If the chapters have got units then unit wise description should be given.
- The core knowledge should be specified into three domains ,categories i.e MUST KNOW,DESIRABLE TO KNOW and NICE TO KNOW.
1 . Describe the cerebrum under the following headings:
- Lobes and surfaces
- Sulci, Gyri and functional areas
- Blood supply
- Describe the kidney under the following headings:
- Parts and relations
- Applied Anatomy
- Ligaments of uterus
- Middle ear
- Coronary arteries
- Pituitary gland
- Broncho pulmonary segments