NURSING FOUNDATION

Placement: B. Sc. Nursing  1st Year

Hours of Instruction

Theory: 265 Hours

Practical: 650 Hours

Total: 915 Hours

S. NO

CONTENT OF TOPICS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
(at the end of the session the student should be able to)

TEACHING OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

TIME

1 Introduction:

  • Concept of health, Factors influencing health, Causes and risk factors for developing illness.
  • Body defenses, Illness and illness behavior

 

  • Health care services, Health care teams, Health promotions and levels of diseases, Primary health care and its delivery

 

 

  • Describe the concept of health and list the causes cum risk factors of illness.
  • Describe the body defenses along with illness and illness behavior.

 

  • Describe the Health care services and teams, Health promotions and levels of diseases, Primary health care and its delivery
 

To teach and discuss about concept of health: health – illness continuum, Factors influencing health, Causes and risk factors for developing illness, Body defenses : immunity and immunization, Illness and illness behavior, Impact of illness on patient and family, Health care services: health promotion and prevention, primary care diagnosis,treatment, rehabilitation and continuing care, Health care teams, Types of health care agencies, Hospitals: types, organization and functions, Health promotions and levels of diseases, Primary health care and its delivery: role of nurse.

 

  • Interactive session with the students regarding factors influencing health, causes and risk factors for illness.
  • Integrated vertical teaching on body defenses and illness behavior.

 

  • Visit to health care agencies

 

 

10 hrs

2 Nursing as a Profession

  • Nursing as a profession and history of nursing in India
  • Definition, concepts, philosophy, objectives, characteristics, nature, and scope of nursing practice

 

  • Functions of nurse, Qualities of nurse, Categories of nursing personnel

 

 

  • Explain concept and scope of nursing
  • Describe values, code of ethics and professional conduct for nurses in India

 

 

To teach and discuss about definition, concepts, philosophy, objectives, Characteristics, nature, and scope of nursing practice. To discuss regarding the functions of nurse, qualities of nurse, Categories of nursing personnel, Nursing as a profession, History of nursing in India, Values: definition, types, values clarification and values in professional nursing: caring
and advocacy, Ethics:definition and ethical principles, code of ethics and professional conduct of nurses

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.
  • Teachers seminar on history of Nursing in India.

 

  • Interactive session with students regarding qualities and functions of a Nurse.
  • Role play on functions of a nurse.

 

 

16 hrs

3 Hospital Admission and Discharge

  • Admission, Discharge, Referrals and Transfersfrom the hospital, Care of the unit after discharge
  • Roles and responsibilities of the nurse

 

 

 

  • Explain the admission and discharge procedure

 

  • Perform the admission and discharge procedure
 

To teach and discuss about admission to the hospital including Unit and its preparation, Admission bed, Admission procedures, Special considerations, Medico-legal issues, Role and responsibilities of the nurse, Discharge from the hospital, Types: Planned
discharge, LAMA and abscond, referrals and Transfers, Discharge Planning, Discharge Procedures, Medico-legal issues, Roles and responsibilities of the nurse, Care of the unit after discharge

 

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

  • Visit to local Hospital
  • Student seminar on admission discharge procedure.
 

4 hrs

4 Communication and Nurse Patient relationship

  • Communication, Methods of effective communication and Communicating effectively
  • Helping relationships (NPR) and Patient teaching

 

 

 

 

 

  • Communicate effectively with patient, families and team members and maintain effective

human relations (projecting professional image)

  • Appreciate the importance of patient teaching in nursing

 

 

 

To teach and discuss about communication: Levels, Elements, Types, Modes, Process, Factors influencing
Communication, Methods of effective communication:Attending skills, Rapport building skills, Empathy skills, Barriers to effective communication, helping relationships (NPR), Dimensions of Helping Relationship, Phases of a Helping Relationship, communicating effectively with patients, families and team members and maintain
effective human relations with special reference to communicating with vulnerable group(children, women, physically and mentally challenged and elderly), Patient teaching; Importance, Purposes, Process, Role of Nurse and Integrating teachingin Nursing Process

 

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections
  • Role play and video film on the nurses interacting with the patient

 

  • Problem based learning for maintaining nurse patient relationship.
 

 

10 hrs

5 The Nursing Process
Critical Thinking and Nursing Judgment

  • Critical Thinking Application in Practice, Protocols and Standing orders
  • Nursing Process, Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, expected outcomes, Implementation, Evaluation, documentation and Reporting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Explain the concept, uses, format and steps of nursing process
  • Documents nursing process as per the format

 

 

 

To teach and discuss about Critical Thinking: Thinking and Learning, Competencies, Attitudes for Critical Thinking,Levels of critical thinking inNursing, Nursing Process, Overview: Application in Practice, Nursing process format: Current format, INC, Assessment:Collection of Data: Types, Sources, methods: Formulating Nursing judgment, Data interpretation Nursing Diagnosis:Identification of client problems, – Nursing diagnosis statement, – Difference between medical and nursing diagnosis, Planning: Establishing priorities,  Establishing goals and expected outcomes, Selection of interventions :Protocols and Standing orders, Writing the Nursing care plan, Implementation:Implementing the plan of care, Evaluation:
Outcome of care, Review and Modify, Documentation and Reporting

 

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.
  • Simulated learning on Nursing process formulation and implementation.

 

15 hrs
6 Documentation and Reporting
Documentation

  • Communication within the Health Care Team
  • Purposes, types, guidelines, methods of Recording and reporting

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe the purposes, types and techniques of recording and reporting
 

 

To teach and discuss about purposes of recording and reporting, Communication within the Health Care Team,
Types of records: ward records, medical/nursing records, Common record keeping forms, computerized documentation, Guidelines for reporting: Factual basis, Accuracy,Completeness, Correctness,Organization, Confidentiality, Methods of Recording, Reporting: Change of shift reports, Incident reports
Minimizing legal Liability through effective record keeping

 

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.
  • Simulated learning on recording and reporting.

 

  • Student seminar on communication within the health care team.
 

 

4 hrs

7 Vital signs

  • Guidelines, characteristics, factors affecting vital signs assessment: Temperature, Pulse, Respiration, Blood Pressure.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe the principles and techniques of monitoring and maintaining vital signs
 

To teach and discuss about guidelines for taking vital signs, Body temperature:
– Physiology, Regulation, factors affecting body temperature- Assessment of body temperature: sites, equipment and technique, special considerations, Temperature alterations: Hyperthermia, Heatstroke, Hypothermia, Hot and cold applications, Pulse:
– Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics of the pulse, Factors affecting pulse, Assessment of pulse: sites, location, equipment’s and technique, special
Considerations, Alterations in pulse, Respiration: Physiology and regulation, mechanics of breathing, characteristics of therespiration, factors affecting respiration, Blood pressure: Assessment of blood pressure: sites, equipment’s and technique and special
Considerations, – Alterations in blood pressure, recording of vital signs

 

  • Simulated learning of assessment of vital signs
  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint regarding abnormalities in vital signs

 

  • Supervised clinical practice

 

 

15 hrs

8 Health assessment

  • Purposes and Process of health assessment: Preparation of patient and unit

 

 

 

 

  • Describe the purpose and process of health assessment
  • Describe the health assessment of each body system

 

  • Perform health assessment of each body system
 

To teach and discuss about Purposes, Process of health assessment including Health history, Physical examination Methods: Inspection,Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation,Olfaction, Preparation for examination: Patient and unit, General assessment, Assessment of each body system, Recording of health assessment

 

  • Simulated learning regarding health assessment.
  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections regarding abnormal findings

 

  • Supervised clinical practice
 

30 hrs

9 Machinery, Equipment and linen

  • Types of linen, Furniture and Machinery

 

 

 

  • Identify the various machinery, equipment and linen and their care

 

 

To teach and discuss about types: Disposables and reusables- Linen, Rubber goods, Glass ware, Metal, Plastics,Furniture, Machinery, Introduction:Indent, Maintenance, Inventory

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

 

5 hrs

10 Meeting needs of patient
Basic needs (Activities of Daily Living)

  • Providing safe and clean environment, Hygiene, Comfort
  • Physiological needs assessment, Sleep and Rest, Nutrition, Bowel elimination, Mobility and Immobility, Oxygenation, Fluid and Electrolyte, Acid-Base imbalances

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe the basic, physiological and psychosocial needs of patient
  • Describe the principles and techniques for meeting basic physiological and psychosocial needs of patient

 

  • Perform nursing assessment, plan, implement and evaluate the care for meeting basic,physiological and psychosocial needs of patient
 

 

To teach and discuss about
Providing safe and clean environment:Physical environment: Temperature, Humidity, Noise, Ventilation, Light, Odor,Pests controlReduction of physical hazards: fire, accidents, Safety devices: Restraints, Side rails, Airways,Trapeze, etc.,Role of nurse in providing safe and clean environment, Hygiene:Factors influencing hygienic practices, Hygienic care: Care of the Skin-Bath and pressure points, Feet and Nail, Oral, cavity, Hair care, Eyes, Ears and Nose, assessment, principles, types, equipment, procedure, special considerations, Patient environment : Room, Equipment and Linen, Making patient beds, Types of beds and bed making, Comfort :Factors influencing comfort, Comfort devices
Physiological needs:Sleep and Rest:Physiology of sleep, Factors affecting sleep, promoting rest and sleep, sleep disorders, Nutrition:Importance, Factors affecting Nutritional needs, Assessment of nutritional needs: variables
Meeting nutritional needs:
Principles, equipment, procedure and special considerations, Oral
External: Naso/Orogastric, Gastrostomy, Parenteral
Urinary elimination:Review of physiology of urinary elimination, composition and characteristics ofurine, Factors influencing urination, Alteration in urinary elimination, Types and collection of urine specimen: Observation, Urinetesting, Facilitating urine elimination: assessment, types, equipment, procedures and
special considerations, providing urinal/bedpan, Condom drainage, Perineal care, Catheterization, Care of urinary drainage, Care of urinary diversions, Bladder irrigation, Bowel elimination: Review of physiology of bowel elimination, composition and characteristics offeces, Factors affecting bowel elimination, Alterations in bowel elimination, Types and collection of specimen of facesObservation, Facilitating bowel elimination: assessment, equipment, procedures and specialconsiderations Passing of flatus tube, EnemasSuppository, Sitz bath, Bowel wash, Care of ostomies, Mobility and Immobility:Principles of body mechanics, maintenance of normal body alignment and mobility, Factors affecting body alignment and mobility, Hazards associated with immobility, Alteration in body alignment and mobility, Nursing interventions for impaired body alignment and mobility: Assessment,Types, Devices used, Method and Social considerations, Rehabilitation aspects
Range of motion exercises Maintaining body alignment: positions, Moving, Lifting, Transferring, Walking, Restraints, Oxygenation:Review of cardio-vascular and respiratory physiology, Factors affecting oxygenation, Alterations in oxygenation, Nursing interventions in oxygenation: assessment, types, equipment used,procedure and special considerations, maintenance of patent air-way, Oxygen administration, Suction
Inhalations: dry and moist
Chest physiotherapy and postural drainage, Care of chest drainage, Pulse oximetry, CPR – Basic life support, Fluid, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balances:Review of physiological regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid-Base
Balances, Alterations in Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid-Base balances, Nursing interventions in Fluid and Electrolyte andAcid-Base imbalances:assessment, types, equipment, procedure and special considerations
Measuring fluid intake and output, Correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalance:
Replacement of fluids: Oral and Parenteral, Venipuncture,
Regulating IV Flow rates, changing IV solutions and tubing’s, changing IVdressing Administering blood transfusion, Restriction of fluids, Psychosocial needs Concepts of cultural diversity, stress and adaptation, self-concept,sexuality, spiritual health, coping with loss, death and grieving, Assessment of psychosocial needs, Nursing intervention for psycho social needs, assist with coping and adaptation, creating therapeutic environment Recreational and diversional therapies

 

 

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.
  • Simulated learning on manikins.

 

 

 

60hrs

11 Infection control in clinical settings

  • Infection control, Isolation precautions, Types, uses and technique of wearing and removing
  • Biomedical waste management, Transportation and disposal

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe principles and techniques for infection control and bio medical waste

 

  • management in supervised clinical settings
 

To teach and discuss about Infection control, Nature of infection, Chain of infection transmission, Defenses against infection transmission, Hospital acquired infection (Nosocomial infection), Isolation precautions (Barrier nursing) :Hand washing : simple, hand asepsis (scrub),  Isolation : source protective,  Personal protecting equipment :Types, uses and technique of wearing and removing, Decontamination of equipment and unit,  Transportation of infected patients, Standard safety precautions(Universal precautions), Transmission based precautions, Biomedical waste management :Importance,  Types of hospital waste,  Hazards associated with hospital waste,  Decontamination of hospital waste, Segregation and Transportation and disposal

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

  • Role play on Biomedical waste management
  • Problem based learning on waste disposal

 

  • Visit to local waste disposal center

 

 

20 hrs

12 Administration of Medications

  • General principles/considerations of medication administration: Parenteral, Subcutaneous, Intra muscular, Intra venous, Topical Administration

 

 

 

 

 

  • Explain the principles, routes, effects of administration of medications

 

  • Calculate conversions of drugs and dosages within and between systems of measurements
  • Administer drugs by the following routes-oral, intra dermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intra venous, topical, inhalation.

 

 

General principles, considerations, Purposes of medication, Principles: 5 rights, special considerations, prescriptions, safety in administeringmedications and medication errors, Drug forms, Routes of administration, Storage and maintenance of drugs and nurse’s responsibility, Broad classification of drugs, Therapeutic effects, side effects, toxic effects, idiosyncratic reactions, drug
tolerance, drug interactions, Systems of drug measurement: Metric system, apothecary system, householdmeasurements, solutions, converting measurements units: Conversion within one system, conversionbetween systems, dosage calculations, Terminologies and abbreviations used in prescriptions of medications, Oral Drugs Administration: Oral, Sublingual and Buccal, equipment, procedure, Parenteral, Types of parenteral therapies, Types of syringes, needles, cannula and infusion sets, Protection from needle stick injuries; Giving medications with a safety syringes, Routes of parenteral therapies: Intra dermal: Purposes, site, equipment,
procedure, special considerations, Subcutaneous: purposes, site, equipment, procedure, special
considerations, Intra muscular: purposes, site, equipment, procedure, special considerations, Intra venous: purposes, site, equipment, procedure, special considerations, – Advanced techniques: epidural, intrathecal, intra osseous, intra peritoneal, intra
plural, intra-arterial Role of nurse, Topical Administration: purposes, site, equipment, procedure, special considerations, Application to skin, Application to mucus membrane:Direct application of liquids- Gargles and swabbing the throat
Insertion of Drug into body cavity:Suppository/medicated packing in rectum/vagina, Instillation: Ear, Eye, Nasal, Bladder, Vaginal, Rectal, Irrigations: Ear, Eye, Nasal, Bladder, Vaginal, Rectal, Spraying: Nose and Throat, inhalation: Nasal, oral, endotracheal/tracheal (steam, oxygen and medications)-purposes,
site, equipment, procedure, special considerations

 

 

  • Integrated vertical teaching on medication preparation and administration

 

  • Simulated learning based on patient chart and manikins
 

40 hrs

13 Meeting needs of peri-operative patients

  • Definition, concept, phrases of peri-operative nursing: Preoperative phase, Intra operative, Post-operativephase
  • Wounds, wound healing, Surgical asepsis and Care of the wound

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Describe the pre-and post-operative care of patients

 

  • Explain the process of wound healing
  • Explain the principles and techniques of wound care Perform care of wounds
 

To teach and discuss about meeting needs of peri-operative patients, Definition and concept of peri-operative nursing, Preoperative phase :Preparation of patient for surgery, intra operative :Operation theatre setup and environment, Role of nurse, Post-operative phase :Recovery unit, Post-operative unit, Post-operative care, wounds : types, classifications, wound healing process, factors affecting wound healing, Surgical asepsis, Care of the wound: Types, equipment, procedure, special considerations, Dressings, suture care, Care of drainage, Application of bandages, binders, splints and slings, Heat and Cold Therapy.

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

  • Role play on meeting needs of peri-operative patients.
 

10 hrs

14 Meeting special needs of the patient

  • Care of the patients having alteration in Temperature, Sensorium, Urinary elimination, Mobility,

Assessment of self – care ability, treatments related to gastro intestinal system

 

 

 

 

 

  • Explain the care of patients having alterations in body functioning

 

 

To teach and discuss about meeting special needs of the patient, Care of the patients having alteration in Temperature (hyper and hypothermia): Types, Assessment, Management,  Sensorium (unconsciousness): Assessment, Management, Urinary elimination (retention and incontinence): assessment,Management-  Functioning of sensory organs (visual and hearing impairment), Assessment of self-care ability, Communication methods and special considerations, Mobility (physically challenged, cast): Assessment of self – care ability, Mental status (mentally challenged) : Assessment of self-care ability, Communication methods and special considerations, Respiration (distress): Types, Assessment, Management, Comfort (pain): Nature, Types, Factors influencing pain, coping,Assessment, Management, Treatments related to gastro intestinal system: Naso gastric suctioning, Gastric
irrigation, Gastric analysis.

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

  • Simulated learning on manikins.
 

15 hrs

15 Care of Terminally ill patients

  • Concepts of loss, grief, grieving process
  • Care of dying patient, Signs of clinical death, Care of dead body, medico- Legal issues

 

 

 

  • Explain the care of terminally ill patients

 

 

To teach and discuss about care of Terminally ill patients, Concepts of loss, grief, grieving process, Signs of clinical death, Care of dying patient: special considerations, Advance directives, Medico- Legal issues, Care of dead body: equipment, procedure and care of unit, Autopsy, Embalming

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

  • Teachers seminar on grief and grieving process
  • Simulated learning on care of dead bodies.

 

  • Essay writing on medico- legal issues.
 

5 hrs

16 Professional nursing concepts and practices

  • Conceptual and theoretical models of nursing practice Introduction to models
  • Linking theories with nursing process

 

 

 

 

 

  • Explain the basic concepts of conceptual and theoretical models of nursing

 

 

To teach and discuss about professional nursing concepts and practices, Conceptual and theoretical models of nursing practice, Introduction to models-holistic
model, health belief model, health promotion model, etc.,
Introduction to theories in nursing-Peplau’s, Handerson’s, Oram’s, Neuman’s, Roger’s, and Roy’s and to learn about linking theories with nursing process

 

  • Didactic lecture through PowerPoint projections.

 

 

6 hrs

Text book:

  1. Potter & Perry, Fundamentals of Nursing, Elsevier, 6th
  2. Harkreader, Fundamentals of Nursing, Catering and Clinical Judgment, Elsevier, 3rdEdition
  3. Kozier, Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process & Practice, Pearson, 7th Edition
  4. Taylor, Fundamentals of Nursing: Arts and science of Nursing Process, Saunders, 7thEdition
  5. Fuller, Health Assessment: Nursing Approach, Lippincott, 3rd Edition
  6. Ackley (BJ), Nursing Diagnosis Hand book: An evidence based guide to planning care,Mosby, 8th Edition
  7. Craven, Fundamentals of Nursing: Human health & function, LWW, 5th Edition